- Plural of gift
A gift or present is the transfer of something, without the need for compensation that is involved in trade. A gift is a voluntary act which does not require anything in return. Even though it involves possibly a social expectation of reciprocity, or a return in the form of prestige or power, a gift is meant to be free.
In many human societies, the act of mutually exchanging money, goods, etc. may contribute to social cohesion. Economists have elaborated the economics of gift-giving into the notion of a gift economy.
By extension the term gift can refer to anything that makes the other happier or less sad, especially as a favour, including forgiveness and kindness.
PresentationWhen material objects are given as gifts, in many cultures they are traditionally packaged in some manner. For example, in Western culture, gifts are often wrapped in wrapping paper and accompanied by a gift note which may note the occasion, the giftee's name, and the giver's name. In Chinese culture, red wrapping connotes luck.
OccasionsThe occasion may be:
- Expression of love or friendship
- Expression of gratitude for a gift received
- Expression of piety, in the form of charity
- Expression of solidarity, in the form of mutual aid
- To share wealth
- To offset misfortune
- Offering travel souvenirs
- Custom, on occasions (often celebrations)
- A birthday (the person who has his or her birthday gives cake, etc. and/or receives gifts)
- A potlatch, in societies where status is associated with gift-giving rather than acquisition.
- Christmas (people give each other gifts, often supposedly receiving them from Santa Claus)
- Saint Nicholas (people give each other gifts, often supposedly receiving them from Saint Nicholas)
- A wedding (the couple receives gifts and gives food and/or drinks at the wedding reception)
- A wedding anniversary (each spouse receives gifts)
- A funeral (visitors bring flowers, the relatives of the deceased give food and/or drinks after the ceremonial part)
- A birth (the baby receives gifts, or the mother receives a gift from the father known as a push present)
- Passing an examination (the student receives gifts)
- Father's Day (the father receives gifts)
- Mother's Day (the mother receives gifts)
- Exchange of gifts between a guest and a host, often a traditional practice
- Giving a round of drinks in a bar.
Kinds of gifts
A gift may be one of
- an ordinary object,
- an object created for the express purpose of gift exchange, such as the armbands and necklaces in the Trobriand Islands' Kula exchange,
- an alternative gift such as a donation to a charity in the name of the recipient.
- a regift of an unwanted gift previously received by the giver.
- a virtual object as seen on Facebook, LiveJournal, both of which allow you to purchase virtual gifts or in games such as GiftTRAP which allow you to give virtual gifts. These are all examples of the Virtual Economy
- Downloadable gifts refer to virtual gifts like e-books, software and music files which you can purchase and instantly download from web vendors.
Legal aspects of giftsAt common law, for a gift to have legal effect, it was required that there be (1) intent by the donor to give a gift, (2) acceptance of the gift by the donee, and (3) delivery to the donee of the item to be given as a gift.
In the United States and some other countries, certain types of gifts above a certain monetary amount are subject to taxation. See gift tax for more information.
Tax deductibility for gifts
Pursuant to , property acquired by gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance is not included in gross income and thus a taxpayer does not have to include the value of the property when filing for taxes. Although many items might appear to be gift, courts have held that the most critical factor is the transferor's intent. Bogardus v. Commissioner, 302 U.S. 34, 43, 58 S.Ct. 61, 65, 82 L.Ed. 32. (1937). The transferor must demonstrate a "detached and disinterested generosity" when giving the gift to actually exclude the value of the gift from the taxpayer's gross income. Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. LoBue, 352 U.S. 243, 246, 76 S.Ct. 800, 803, 100 L.Ed. 1142 (1956). Unfortunately, the court's articulation of what exactly satisfies a "detached and disinterested generosity" leaves much to be desired.
Some situations are clearer, however.
- "Gifts" received at promotional events are not excluded from taxation:
- "Gifts" received from employers that benefit employees are not excluded from taxation:
In addition, policy reasons for the gift exclusion from gross income are unclear. It is said that no justification exists. It is also said that the exclusion is for administrative reasons, both for taxpayers and for the IRS. Without the exclusion taxpayers would have to keep track of all their gifts, including nominal ones, during the year, and this would create additional oversight problems for the IRS.
Religious viewsRitual sacrifices can be seen as return gifts to a deity. Sacrifice can also be seen as a gift from a deity: Lewis Hyde remarks in The Gift that Christianity considers the Incarnation and subsequent death of Jesus to be a "gift" to humankind, and that the Jakata contains a tale of the Buddha in his incarnation as the Wise Hare giving the ultimate alms by offering himself up as a meal for Sakka. (Hyde, 1983, 58-60)
In the Eastern Orthodox Church the bread and wine that are consecrated during the Divine Liturgy are referred to as "the Gifts". They are first of all the gifts of the community (both individually and corporately) to God, and then, after the epiklesis, the Gifts of the Body and Blood of Christ to the Church.
- Marcel Mauss and W.D. Halls, Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies, W. W. Norton, 2000, trade paperback, ISBN 0-393-32043-X
- Lewis Hyde: The Gift: Imagination and the Erotic Life of Property, 1983 (ISBN 0-394-71519-5), especially part I, "A Theory of Gifts", part of which was originally published as "The Gift Must Always Move" in Co-Evolution Quarterly No. 35, Fall 1982.
- Jean-Luc Marion translated by Jeffrey L. Kosky, "Being Given: Toward a Phenomonology of Giveness", Stanford University Press, 2002 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN 0-8047-3410-0.
- Foreign Gifts Database, foreign gifts (whether tangible gifts or travel) received by members of Congress and their staff in the past decade.
gifts in Azerbaijani: Hədiyyə
gifts in Danish: Gave
gifts in German: Geschenk
gifts in Spanish: Regalo
gifts in Esperanto: Donaco
gifts in French: Cadeau
gifts in Hindi: उपहार
gifts in Indonesian: Hadiah
gifts in Italian: Dono
gifts in Hebrew: מתנה
gifts in Lithuanian: Dovana
gifts in Dutch: Cadeau
gifts in Japanese: 贈り物
gifts in Norwegian: Gave
gifts in Norwegian Nynorsk: Gåve
gifts in Polish: Prezent
gifts in Portuguese: Presente (comportamento)
gifts in Simple English: Gift
gifts in Slovak: Dar
gifts in Finnish: Lahja
gifts in Swedish: Gåva
gifts in Samogitian: Duovėna
gifts in Chinese: 禮物